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青岛净化工程风机测试报告-Wind Turbine Report

Wind Turbine Report
Wen-Yu Yang, Qian Sun, Nobuhiro Suga, Yuan-Hao Cheng

Introduction (By Wen-Yu Yang)

Wind Turbine is playing an important role in Qingdao cleaning engineer. Wind energy could make a significant contribution to decrease the emission of CO2 in Qingdao. In the article, “Wind power is crucial for combating climate change”, by Global Wind Energy Council (2012), wind power was one of the solutions to reducing greenhouse gas. Wind farm takes less than one year to build, and it was estimated that wind power reduced 600 g/kwh (gram per kilowatt hour) CO2 emission. According to the article, “The Performance Evaluation of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Torque and Mechanical Power Generation Affected by the Number of Blade” (2016), wind energy is extracted by a wind turbine. Blades are propelled by wind and wind energy is transformed into mechanical energy. Then, the rotating blades drive the generator. Eventually, the mechanical energy is converted to electrical energy. To build the most efficient wind turbine, we studied the designs of wind turbines from the literature review. There are some factors related to the efficiency of wind turbine such as “number of blades”, “skewing angle” and “shape”.




The shape may affect forces that the blade faces against the wind。 According to “Guide blades’ feasibility evaluation and its contribution to the performance of a micro-wind turbine resembling lotus in shape,” which was published by 2014, the lotus shape of blades is not only a decoration but also a good design to increase the speed of the wind。 In addition, the authors compared the skewing angle of blades with 0 degrees, 15 degrees, and 30 degrees。 They found out that the angle of 0 degrees performed the worst because it cannot escape the wind streamline and not to affect itself。 On the other hand, the angle of 15 degrees performed the best because it can reduce vortex so that the blades would not be affected and could run stably。



Number of Blades

Some research uses a wind turbine of the Darrieus rotor type which has 6 blades to find the similarity with a flapping wing (Gorelow, 2009)。 This structure has a lot of blades compare to other articles。 In addition, according to the article, “The Performance Evaluation of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Torque and Mechanical Power Generation Affected by the Number of Blade”, it evaluated the effect of “number of blades”。 The power generated by wind turbine could be calculated by the tip speed of blades and the torque of blades。 After testing the wind turbine with different blades (1~6), the results showed that wind turbine with six blades generated more power than others。 However, most wind turbines chose three blades because of low repair cost in Qingdao clearing engineer。



After the analysis of the wind turbine design, Qingdao clearing engineer find that the more blades on the turbine, the more wind energy was extracted. Moreover, it was found that the skewing angle of 15 degrees worked better the skewing angle of 30 degrees and the lotus shape could be easily propelled. The performance of wind turbines would be tested how much voltage was generated by a fan in different distances (10 cm, 50 cm, 100 cm, and 200 cm).


Last, we would make a wind turbine with different blades, shape, and skewing angle to test whether the design works, and which design works best in the experiment. Therefore, we decided to make four turbines. Turbine 1 was made of 3-blade with 15-degree skewing angle. Turbine 2 was made of different skewing angle (30-degree) with 3 blades. Turbine 3 and turbine 4 had the same skewing angle as turbine 1. However, turbine 3 was made of 6 blades and the shape of turbine 4 was a lotus. By doing so, we would know the effect of shape, skewing angle, and number of blades in the experiment.



Methodology (By Qian Sun)


According to (Jiang,2015), the performance of modern turbines is still far away from the Betz limit, wasting energy extreme. The main factor of this problem is that the designs of blades are not perfect enough. Based on Betz limit (Jiang,2015), If the fans are much too big and heavy, trying to extract all the energy coming from wind movement through a turbine as useful energy, the wind speed afterwards would drop to zero, and no new useful energy would be generated.



This subject focus on comparison experimental method, the support of active investigation, case investigation, documents, and reports to figure out the relationship between the performance of wind turbine and the design of fans blade。 Four wind turbines were made in this experiment, being divided into three experimental and one control group。 The original fan (Figure 2-1) with three triangular blades was the control group, and the setting angle of the blade was 15 degrees。 The second fan (Figure 2-2) was the experimental group and had the same design of the fan blade with group 1, and the setting angle of its blade was 30 degrees。 Group 3 (Figure 2-3) and group 4 (Figure 2-4) were also experimental groups。 Compared with group 1, group 3 had different number of fans blade, and group 4 had different shape of fans blade。





The materials we have employed to build the fans are sketch paper, glue, toothpicks, Vacuum cup, and cork. Sketch paper and three-centimeter-toothpicks were used to make a blade, and glue shot from the glue gun (Figure 2-5), was used to stick on sketch paper and toothpicks together. There are numerous factors that spurred us to make the blade with sketch paper, and the most rooted one can be the characteristics of sketch paper. Sketch paper is quite durable material and not liable to warp. Plus, sketch paper is light enough to be driven by the air flow easily. According to Gorelow (2009), when this kind of fan was pushed against by the wind generated by the electric fan, the blades are easier to rotate. To increase the stability of the wind turbine, a vacuum cup weighing 250 grams was playing a role at the base of the fan.






At the beginning, the sketch paper was cut to make twelve 6 square centimeters triangular blades and three 25 square centimeters peach shape blades. Every triangular blade had to be exactly the same in order to exclude the impact generated by the shape of the blade. Then these blades were stuck on toothpicks through glue gun. The reason we choose a glue gun to stick the blade is that we want to make the setting angle fixed. The measuring data cannot have been accurate if the setting angle is changed during in the period of test.




After measuring the setting angle, these blades were stuck in the cork, and fix the cork in the motor。 Finally, the fans were finished。 Not until these fans were manufactured, did we put these fans in front of the electric fans, testing the performance of the turbines。


Finally, these fans have been rotated driven by the air flow, measured the current generated by the rotating fans, then we can judge that which fans are more efficient。


Results (By Nobuhiro Suga)

Our group compared 4 turbines which have the different angle, number of wings or shape of the wing by testing them using a fan and a mortar. Our group put our turbine in different distances (10 cm, 50 cm, 100 cm, 200 cm) and checked how much electricity was made using a mortar. As a result, our group found characteristic from the result. Fig.3.1 shows the characteristic which all turbines have. If the turbine gets farther than 100 cm, the turbine did not respond to the wind. Therefore, the 4 turbines are not efficient to catch the weak wind.

结果(由Nobuhiro Suga)



Table 3。1 shows the result of each turbine。 At 10 cm, the (3) turbine caught the wind efficiently。 But at 50 cm, the (1) turbine caught the wind efficiently。 As our group mentioned, if the turbine gets farther than 100 cm from the fan, it will not respond to wind。


表3.1示出了每个涡轮机的结果。在10厘米,(3)涡轮机有效地捕捉风。但在50 cm时,(1)涡轮有效地捕获了风。正如我们的小组提到的,如果涡轮机离风扇超过100厘米,它就不会对风作出反应。

Comparing each of our group’s turbine, the (2) turbine which had 3 wings and an angel of 30 degrees generated electricity the worst at 10 cm and 50 cm. Thus, the most efficient turbine had an angle of 15 degrees. Then comparing other 3 turbines, the (4) turbine did not generate electricity well at 10 cm. At 50 cm, the (4) turbine did not generate electricity well as the (1) turbine. Therefore, a wing which had a shape of a triangle is better than a unique wing which had a shape of a petal, similar to a circle. Last comparing 2 turbines, the (3) turbine generated electricity better than the (1) turbine at 10 cm, but the (3) turbine did not generate electricity better than the (1) turbine at 50 cm. The (3) turbine generated about 25 mv and the (1) turbine generated about 42 mv at 50 cm. Thus, the (1) turbine is better than the (3) turbine.

比较我们组的每台涡轮机,具有3翼和30度天使的(2)涡轮机产生的电最差,在10厘米和50厘米。因此,最有效的涡轮机具有15度的角度。然后比较其他3个涡轮机,(4)涡轮机在10厘米处不能很好地发电。在50厘米,(4)涡轮没有发电良好(1)涡轮。因此,具有三角形形状的机翼比具有形状类似于圆形的花瓣的独特翼要好。最后比较2个涡轮机,(3)涡轮在10厘米处比(1)涡轮发电好,但(3)涡轮比50厘米处的(1)涡轮发电好。(3)涡轮机产生约25 mV,并且(1)涡轮机在50厘米处产生约42 mV。因此,(1)涡轮优于(3)涡轮。

Compare to other groups, other group had a turbine which could spin at 200 cm far from the fan, but it generated low electricity。 It generated about 19 mv at 10 cm and generated about 5。5 mv at 200 cm。 That turbine had a bigger wing than our turbines。 Also, comparing to other groups, our group’s turbines generated electricity the most at 10 cm。


Table 3。1。 Result of The Experience


10 cm

50 cm

100 cm

200 cm

(1) 3 triangle wings, 15°

41.0 mv

42.0 mv

0.0 mv

0.0 mv

(2) 3 triangle wings, 30°

30.0 mv

18.5 mv

0.0 mv

0.0 mv

(3) 6 triangle wings, 15°

43。0 mv

25。0 mv

0.0 mv

0.0 mv

(4) 3 unique wings, 15°

38.0 mv

26。0 mv

0。0 mv

0.0 mv


Our prediction was that the (3) turbine will be the most efficient because it has 6 wings, so we predict it can catch the wind efficiently。 But the result was different。 At 10 cm, the (3) turbine was the most efficient one but at 50 cm, the (3) turbine was the third efficient one。 Also, the (3) turbine did not respond to wind if it got farther than 100 cm。 Thus, 6 wings did not catch wind well in the experiment。 Our group considered that this was caused by the wing size。 Other group's turbine which can respond to wind at 200 cm had a big wing。 Therefore, our group’s wing size was too small to catch a week wind。 Also, the (3) turbine need more power than other our turbines because it has 6 wings which means the (3) turbine was heavy。 Thus, the (1) turbine, which was lighter than the (3) turbine, had a good performance in the experiment。


Discussion & Conclusion (By Yuan-Hao Cheng)

There are many kinds of wind turbine designs. Their difference from another is based on the number, skewing angle, and the shape of the blade. To test the performance of different blades, we used poster board to make four types of blades. Two of them had three triangular blades, but one was skewed at an angle of 15 degrees, and the other was 30 degrees. We also made another triangular blade with six blades, and it was skewed at an angle of 15 degrees. The last one’s blades were shaped in lotus. It had three blades and was skewed at an angle of 15 degrees. In the experiment, we made them stand respectively at a distance of 10 cm, 50 cm, 100 cm, and 200 cm from the fan, and recorded their electricity production at each distance. As a result, all of them performed well at a distance of 10 cm and 50 cm. However, when coming to the distance of 100 cm and 200 cm from the fan, they all had no reaction.



The reason all the wind turbines did not have a reaction at the far distance was that the wind did not give the turbine enough power to spin around, and the gap between blade and blade is too large to receive the power of wind。 We should have made our blade as large as we can, and made the blade overlapped with one another, or we should have made the number of our blade as much as we could, so it would catch all wind and make itself spin around。 According to Tan and Teow (2016), the author compared wind turbines with a number of 1 blades to 6 blades。 He found out that there is a relationship between spinning rate and the number of blades。 When the number of the blades increases, the spinning rate rises as well。 However, our six-blade-turbine did not perform as our expected, we believe that it was because of the size of the blades were not big enough to catch the wind to spin around。 We think that this experiment can be support designers to modern wind turbines。 Since the energy power of this planet is limited, we should do our best to save limited energy and use well on reusable energy。 Through this experiment, we can get the reason there are generally three blades of wind turbines have made, which is that it can use the wind power efficiently and save material money。 If there is the second chance to have the experiment, we will try to make rectangular blades, and also skew 15 degrees on blades to test performance。



Gorelow, D.N. (2009). Analogy between a flapping wing and a wind turbine with a vertical axis

of revolution。 Journal of Applied Mechanics and Technical Physics, 50, pp.297-299.

Jiang, Li, & Cheng. (2015). Performances of ideal wind turbine. Renewable Energy, 83, 658-662。

Kruyt, N。, & Westra, R。 (2014)。 On the inverse problem of blade design for centrifugal pumps

and fans. Inverse Problems, 30(6), 22.

Tan, R。 H。, & Teow, M。 Y。 (2016)。 The Performance Evaluation of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

Torque and Mechanical Power Generation Affected by the Number of Blade。 MATEC Web of Conferences, 70, 03002。 doi :10。1051/matecconf/

Wang, Y., & Zhan, M. (2014). Guide blades’ feasibility evaluation and its contribution to

performance of a micro-wind turbine resembling lotus in shape. Energy and Buildings, 82, 709-718。 doi:10。1016/j。enbuild。2014。07。073

Wind power is crucial for combating climate change (2012)。 Global Wind Energy Council.

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